<p style='text-align: justify;'> Extract [in the hand of W.R. Hay] from an article appeared in the Leeds Independent newspaper, dated, Thursday 7 October 1819. Reference was made to an Act of the Parliament of England relating to the Tumultuous Petitioning Act 1661 (13 Car 2 St. 1 c. 5) - 'An Act against Tumults and Disorders upon p[re]tence of p[re]paring or p[re]senting publick Petic[i]ons or other Addresses to His Majesty or the Parliament'. Is expressing 'Act Against Tumultuous Petitioning', a law enacted at the Restoration to prevent petitioning of parliament in force. The proceedings of the early nineteenth-century radical reformers were in direct opposition to this law, played a critical part in establishing the right to petition in practice at a time when its precise constitutional status was ambiguous. </p>
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