<p style='text-align: justify;'>Abū al-Majd Majdūd ibn Ādam Sanāʼī al-Ghaznavī (d. ca. 1131) composed his epic poem <i>Ḥadīqat al-Ḥaqīqah va Sharī‘at al-Ṭarīqah</i> (The Garden of Truth and Rules of the Way), shortly before his death, but left it incomplete. On the order of the poet's patron, Bahrām Shāh Ghaznavī (b. 1084, r. 1117–1157), Muḥammad bin ‘Ali Raffā' subsequently completed a full edition in ten chapters, to which he added a prose preface; however, this volume features a different, anonymous opening instead. Muḥammad al-Qivāmī, known as Ḥammāmī, completed this volume in Rajab, 1016 AH (Oct.–Nov. 1607 CE), probably in Shiraz, where artists then also delicately illuminated the manuscript and painted seven illustrations, including three double-page scenes.</p>
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