Persian Manuscripts : Two poetic works, one written in the centres of the folios, with a second in the margins.

Persian Manuscripts

<p style='text-align: justify;'>This brief, undated, but illustrated manuscript, probably completed in 18th-century India, features the <i>Pandnāmah</i> (Book of Advice) spuriously attributed to Saʻdī (d. 1292) in the centres of the pages, with another poem entitled <i>Maḥmūdnāmah</i> (Book of Maḥmūd) written in the surrounding margins. Together, they comprise two of five titles frequently found in a collection popularly known as the <i>Panj Ganj</i> (Five Treasures) or <i>Panj Kitāb</i>predominantly employed in traditional schools in Central Asia, Afghanistan, and India, with many variant manuscripts and editions in circulation. The first work concerns moral advice and etiquette, while the second features romantic poems arranged in alphabetic order attributed to one Muḥammad Maḥmūd Lāhūrī (937–1008 AH/1530–1600 CE), inspired by stories of Sulṭān Maḥmud Ghaznavī (b. 971, r. 998–1030) and his beloved servant Ayāz found in earlier works. </p>

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