<p style='text-align: justify;'>Timurid-era poet ‘Abd al-Raḥman Jāmī (1414-1492), originally composed the first work, the <i>Bahāristān</i> (Spring Garden) in 892 AH (1486 CE). Modelled upon the <i>Gulistān</i> (Rose Garden) of Saʻdī, he divided it into eight chapters or 'gardens' (<i>rawz̤ah</i>) devoted to Sufi saints and philosophers, the topics of justice, generosity, love, and comedy, as well as a highly esteemed section on poetic literature, and the last regarding animals.</p><p style='text-align: justify;'>The second work, a compilation of missives, bears the title <i>Ruqaʻāt-i ʻĀlamgīrī</i> (Letters of ʻĀlamgīr) on the outer cover, ascribed to the Mughal emperor ‘Ālamgīr I (r. 1618–1707). However, the colophon identifies it as another variant compilation of enigmatic expressions entitled the <i>Ramz va Īshārah-'i ʻĀlamgīrī</i> (Intimations and Allusions of ‘Ālamgīr) originally assembled by the a scribe named either Budh Mal Rām (or Subudh Mal Rām), for his patron, Rājah Ayā Māl Khatrī (d. 1748), a widely admired diplomat and minister to Mahārājah Ishvārī Singh (b. 1721, r. 1743–1750), ruler of Amber Kingdom at Jaipur. Primarily comprised of enigmatic phrases in missives addressed to ‘Alamgir's sons Muḥammad ‘Aẓam (1653–1707) and Muḥammad Mu‘aẓẓam (later Bahādur Shāh I, b. 1643, r. 1707–1712), this copy appears incomplete and ends with lines that he composed on the execution of his eldest brother and rival, Dara Shikoh (1615–1659). </p>
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