<p style='text-align: justify;'>The earliest-known, probably holograph copy of the <i>Khulāṣat al-Kalām</i> (Essence of Oration), completed by the author, NavvābAmīn al Dawlah‘Azīz al-Mulk, ‘Alī Ībrāhīm Khān Bahādur, known as 'Nāṣir Jang', (d. 1793–94), pen-named 'Khayāl', in 1198 AH (1784 CE).</p><p style='text-align: justify;'>The first of a two-volume anthology of Persian <i>mas̱navī</i> poetry, it contains entries for forty out of seventy-two poets chronicled in the complete work, begining with the letter <i>ālif</i> (الف) until the first page of letter <i>ṣād</i> (صاد), thus ending with poet Ḥusaynā Ṣabūḥī (d. 1198 AH 1677–78 CE).</p><p style='text-align: justify;'>He also authored other legal, literary, and historical works, including <i>Aḥvāl-i Jang-i Marhattah</i> (Chronicle of the Maratha War), of which the John Rylands Library also holds a copy (<a target='_blank' class='externalLink uom-purple' href='https://www.fihrist.org.uk/catalog/manuscript_6950'>Persian MS 452</a>). Originally from Patna, Warren Hastings befriended the author and appointed him Chief Magistrate of Benares (Varanasi today), in which he served until his death. During that time, he composed this work and dedicated it to Hastings on folio <a dir='auto' href='' onclick='store.loadPage(18);return false;'>2b</a>. </p>
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